Frank Lloyd Wright- Биография архитектора на английском.
Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8, 1867–April 9, 1959) was one of the most prominent architects of the first half of the 20th century.
He was born in the agricultural town of Richland Center, Wisconsin and brought up with strong Unitarian and transcendental principles. As a child he used to spend a lot of time playing with the Kindergarten educational blocks by Friedrich Wilhelm August Frobel (popularly known as Froebel's blocks) given by his mother. These consisted of various geometrically shaped blocks that could be assembled in various combinations to form three dimensional compostions.
Wright in his autobiography talks about the influence of these exercises on his approach to design. Many of his buildings are notable for the geometrical clarity they exhibit.
Wright commenced his formal education in 1885 at the University of Wisconsin School for Engineering, where he was a member of a fraternity, Phi Delta Theta. He took classes part time for two years while apprenticing under Allen Conover, a local builder and professor of civil engineering. In 1887, Wright left the university without taking a degree (although he was granted an honorary doctorate of fine arts from the university in 1955) and moved to Chicago, where he joined the architectural firm of Joseph Lyman Silsbee. Within the year, he had left Silsbee to work for the firm of Adler and Sullivan. Beginning in 1890, he was assigned all residential design work for the firm. In 1893, after a falling out that probably concerned the work he had taken on outside the office, Wright left Adler and Sullivan to establish his own practice in the Chicago suburb of Oak Park, IL. He had completed around fifty projects by 1901.
Between 1901 and 1911, his residential designs were "Prairie Houses" (extended low buildings with shallow sloping roofs, clean sky lines, suppressed chimneys, overhangs and terraces, using unadorned natural materials), so called because the design is considered to complement the land around Chicago. Wright also played a significant role in "open plan" ideas for residential interiors and he came to regard interior space as a more significant part of his designs. He believed that humanity should be central to all design.
He designed his own home-studio complex, called Taliesin (after the 6th century Welsh poet, whose name means literally 'shining brow'), which was built near Spring Green, Wisconsin in 1911. The complex was a distinctive low one-storey L-shaped structure with views over a lake on one side and Wright's studio on the opposite side. Taliesin was twice destroyed by fire; the current building there is called Taliesin III. The first time it burned, seven people were killed, including Wright's mistress, Mamah Borthwick, and her two children (by her husband Edwin Cheney).
He visited Japan, first in 1905, and Europe (1909), opening a Tokyo office in 1915. In the 1930s Wright designed his winter retreat in Arizona, called Taliesin West; the retreat, like much of Wright's architecture, blends organically with the surrounding landscape.
Wright is responsible for a concept or a series of extremely original concepts of suburban development united under the term Broadacre City. He proposed the idea in his book The Disappearing City in 1932, and unveiled a very large (about 12 by 12 feet) model of this community of the future, showing it in several venues in the following years. He went on developing the idea until his death.
It was also in the 1930s that Wright designed many of his "Usonian" houses—essentially designs for working-class people that were based on a simple geometry, yet elegantly done and practical. He would later use such designs in his First Unitarian Meeting House built in Madison, Wisconsin between 1947-1950.
His most famous house was constructed from 1935 to 1939—Fallingwater for E.J. Kaufmann at Bear Run, Pennsylvania, which was designed according to Wright's desire to place the occupants close to the natural surroundings, with a stream running under part of the building. The construction is a series of cantilevered balconies and terraces, using stone for all verticals and concrete for the horizontals. The house cost $155,000, including the architect's fee of $80,000. Kaufmann's own engineers argued that the design was not sound. They were overruled, but they were later proven to be correct—the cantilevered floors began to sag shortly afterwards. In the late 1990s, steel supports were added under the lowest cantilever, until a detailed structural analysis could be done. In March of 2002, post-tensioning of the lowest terrace was completed.
Wright practiced what is known as organic architecture, an architecture that evolves naturally out of the context, most importantly for him the relationship between the site and the building.
One of his projects, Monona Terrace in Madison, Wisconsin, was completed in 1997 on the original proposed site, using Wright's original design for the exterior with an interior design by his apprentice Tony Puttnam. Monona Terrace was accompanied by controversy reminiscent of Wright's own life, partly involving the authenticity of the combined interior and exterior designs, and partly due to the covering-up of a locally-venerated roadside mural.
Wright's personal life was a colorful one that frequently made news headlines. He married three times. His third (and last) wife was Olgivanna Hinzenberg (nee Olgivanna Ivanovna Lazovich), who had been a student of G. I. Gurdjieff who came to visit the couple at Taliesin. The meeting of Gurdjieff and Wright is explored in Robert Lepage's The Geometry Of Miracles.
Wright died on April 9, 1959, having designed an enormous number of significant projects including the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York City, a building which occupied him for 16 years (1943–1959) and is probably his most recognized masterpiece. The building rises as a white spiral from its site on Fifth Avenue. Its unique central geometry allows visitors to experience temporary exhibits on the slowly-descending central spiral ramp.
Many speculate that the character of Howard Roark, an architect in Ayn Rand's book The Fountainhead, is based, at least in part, on Frank Lloyd Wright. Rand herself, however, denied this.
His son Frank Lloyd Wright Jr., known as Lloyd Wright, was also a notable architect.
Winslow House, near River Forest, IL, 1894
Ward W. Willits House, Highland Park, IL, 1901
Susan Lawrence Dana House, The Dana-Thomas House Springfield, IL, 1902 - 1904
The Dana-Thomas House, Springfield, Illinois
Dwight D. Martin House, Buffalo NY, 1904
Unity Temple, Oak Park, IL, 1906
Avery Coonley House, Riverside, IL, 1907
Frederick C. Robie House, Chicago, IL, 1909
Imperial Hotel (mostly demolished), originally Tokyo, Japan, 1915, lobby and pool reconstructed in 1976 in at Meji Village, near Nagoya, Japan
Aline Barnsdall House Hollyhock House, Los Angeles, CA, 1917
Charles Ennis House, Los Angeles, CA, 1923
Johnson Wax Headquarters, Racine, Wisconsin, 1936
Paul R. Hanna House, (Honeycomb House), Stanford, CA, begun 1936
Herbert F. Johnson House (Wingspread), Wind Point, WI, 1937
V.C. Morris Gift Shop, San Francisco, CA, 1948
Price Tower, Bartlesville, Oklahoma, 1952
Marin County Civic Center, San Rafael, CA, 1957-1966, (featured in the movie Gattaca)
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