Топик Transport in the Middle Ages .
After the fall of Rome roads in Europe returned to being simple dirt tracks, which turned to mud in the Winter.
In the Middle Ages rich people sometimes travelled in covered wagons. They must have been very uncomfortable as they did not have suspension and roads were bumpy and rutted. Others travelled on a box between two poles. Two horses, one in front and one behind carried it. They were trained to walk at the same pace.
However at sea a number of useful inventions were made. The Chinese invented the compass centuries before it was used in Europe. Nevertheless by the 12th century Europeans had learned to use it. Also in the 12th century Europeans invented the rudder. (The Chinese independently invented it centuries before). Rudders made ships much easier to steer. Furthermore shipbuilding became far more advanced and by the 15th century ships were made with 3 masts.
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